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来源:时间:2017-07-19 12:01:20作者:点击:1次

2018考研英语:长难句实例解析,在考研英语中,长难句是考研英语阅读理解、完型填空、翻译三个题型中的难点,但是很多同学对它的理解还是不够到位导致成绩不理想。借暑期集中复习时段,伴考考研建议各考研生对英语长难句进行强化训练。以下整理了一些分析法分享给大家。

2018考研英语:长难句实例解析,从结构来说,英语句子中,除了谓语之外,其它的成分均可以由从句或者非谓语动词来充当。从句本身是一个完整的句子,因此,从句与从句之间的关系可能包孕、套嵌,也可能并列、平行。从功能来说,英语有三大复合句,即:①名词性从句,包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句;②形容词性从句,即我们平常所说的定语从句;③状语从句。非谓语动词可以有自己的时态和语态(过去分词除外),也可以跟自己的逻辑主语、宾语、状语等成分,构成一个非谓语动词结构。由于非谓语动词和从句的这些特点,使英语句子从理论上讲可以无限延长。

英语长句的分析方法:去枝叶,留主干。

1)划出句子中的定语从句和状语从句;

2)划出所有介词短语(位于be动词后的除外);

3)名词性从句看作一个整体,找出句中所有的谓语结构、非谓语结构、介词短语和从句的引导词;

4)非谓语动词结构看作一个整体;

5)找出全句的主语、谓语和宾语,即句子的主干;

6)分析从句的结构和非谓语动词的内部结构。

长难句分析的步骤举例

经典例题(2001年考研完型填空第二段)

In a significant tightening of legal controls over the press, Lord Irvine, the Lord Chancellor, will introduce a draft bill that will propose making payments to witnesses illegal and will strictly control the amount of publicity that can be given to a case before a trial begins.

分析:

第一,划出定语从句和状语从句: that will propose making payments to witnesses illegal and will strictly control the amount of publicity /that can be given to a case /before a trial begins.

第二,划出介词短语:In a significant tightening of legal controls over the press

第三,句子的结构分析:

(1)主干结构是主语(Lord Irvine含同位语the Lord Chancellor)+将来时谓语(will introduce)+宾语(a draft bill);

(2)that引导的定语从句修饰draft bill,其中,will propose 是第一个谓语,making payments to witnesses illegal是一个动名词短语做宾语,在动名词短语内部,payments to witnesses做making的宾语,illegal是宾补;第二个谓语是will strictly control, the amount of publicity是它的宾语。that can be given to a case before a trial begins是孕含有一个时间状语从句(before a trial begins)的定语从句,修饰publicity。

请大家按照上述步骤认真分解以下的句子,并把分解后的句子读熟甚至背过,则基本上可以解决考研长难句问题。

考研英语十大长难句实例分析

1. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

结构分析: 本句是由for连接的两个因果关系的并列句;for前面的部分是表示结果的分句,此句结构是when引导的状语从句+主句,主句主干结构是... it is advisable to ...,其中,it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式结构;动词不定式结构中又包含一个what引导的宾语从句,做find out的宾语;for后面的部分是表示原因的分句,此句结构是:让步状语从句+主句,主句主干结构是... it is possible that... ,it 是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的that从句;

译文: 当一场新的艺术运动形成某种时尚时,理应弄清其倡导者的目标所在,因为无论他们的准则在今天看来是多么牵强附会、不可思议,将来都有可能被视为正常的。

2.The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for amateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the nineteenth century and then by several local geological journals in the twentieth century.

结构分析: 本句主干部分是The ... result has been to make entrance ... harder for amateurs...; 第一个逗号后面是一个名词性短语,中心词是the result,后面是that引导的定语从句;此定语从句中包含两个并列状语,其结构为first by ... and then by ... ;

译文: 其总的结果是使业余人员的论文进入专业性地质学杂志更加困难,而审稿制度的全面引进使论文发表的难度进一步加大,这一制度开始是在19世纪的全国性杂志出现的,进入20世纪后也在一些地方性地质杂志实行。

3.Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low-level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head-scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.

结构分析: 本句主干结构是... this project has turned out to be ... findings ...; findings前面的mostly low-level是findings的修饰成分,后面的about ... 介词结构是宾语findings的宾语补足语;逗号后面的过去分词结构combined是状语成分,表示一种伴随的动作;

译文: 遗憾的是,这次调查的结果只获得了一些肤浅的发现,诸如新闻报道中的事实错误、拼写或语法错误,以及特别令人费解的困惑:读者到底想读些什么。

4.A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family."

结构分析: 本句句子主干是A lateral move ... prompted me to ...; move后面是that引导的定语从句,修饰a lateral move, that在从句做主语;第一个逗号后面的是状语成分,两个逗号之间的部分是插入语;

译文: 一次平级的人事调动伤了我的自尊心,并阻碍了我的事业发展,这促使我放弃自己地位较高的职业,当然,就像颜面扫尽的政府部长那样,我也掩饰说“我想多陪陪家人”.

5.I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life" , and making the alternative move into "downshifting" brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.

结构分析: 本句主干结构是I have discovered ... + that引导的宾语从句;as引导的句子是伴随状语,可以看作是插入语;在that引导的宾语从句中,主语是两个动名词短语:abandoning ... and making ...,谓语是brings;

译文: 我已经发现(由于压力过大,凯尔茜已多次公开宣称要辞去《她》杂志编辑的职务,在这之后她也许会同样发现):放弃“忙忙碌碌”的生活哲学,转而过一种“放慢生活节奏”的生活所带来的回报,比经济成功和社会地位更有价值。

6.Despite a spell of initial optimism in the 1960s and 1970s when it appeared that transistor circuits and microprocessors might be able to copy the action of the human brain by the year 2010, researchers lately have begun to extend that forecast by decades if not centuries.

结构分析: 本句主干结构为researchers ... have began to extend that forecast...;逗号前面为状语成分,包含一个when引导的定语从句,其中it是形式主语,appear后面是that引导的是主语从句;

译文: 虽然一开始在20世纪60年代和70年代有过一段乐观的时期--那时候仿佛晶体管电路和微处理器的发展将使它们在2010年能够模仿人类大脑的活动--但是最近研究人员已经开始将这个预测延后数十年,甚至数百年。

7. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect" , a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects - a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen - is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect.

结构分析:句子主干是:... the Court ... supported the medical principle of "double effect" ... ; although引导的让步状语从句,其中包含一个that引导的宾语从句,作ruled的宾语;a centuries-old moral principle是the medical principle的同位语,其中包含一个现在分词holding及其宾语从句现在分词短语做定语;宾语从句中,主干部分是:an action ... is permissible... ,其中having是现在分词作定语,修饰an action;两个破折号之间是对two effects的解释说明;宾语从句中还包含一个if引导的条件状语从句;

译文:尽管裁决认为,宪法没有赋予医生帮助病人自杀的权利,然而最高法庭实际上却认可了医疗界的“双效”原则,这个存在了好几个世纪的道德原则认为,如果某种行为具有双重效果(希望达到的好效果和可以预见得到的坏效果),那么,只要行为实施只是想达到好的效果,这个行为就是可以允许的。

8. For example, a grandmotherly woman staffing an animal rights booth at a recent street fair was distributing a brochure that encouraged readers not to use anything that comes from or is tested in animals - no meat, no fur, no medicines.

结构分析:句子主干是:... a ... woman ... was distributing a brochure ... ; woman后面的现在分词短语staffing an animal rights booth是woman的后置定语;brochure后面的that引导定语从句; anything后面的that引导定语从句;

译文:例如,在近期的一次集市上,一位老奶奶站在动物权利宣传点前散发小册子,规劝人们不要使用动物制品和动物实验制品--肉类,毛皮,药物。

9. Finally, because the ultimate stakeholders are patients, the health research community should actively recruit to its cause not only well-known personalities such as Stephen Cooper, who has made courageous statements about the value of animal research, but all who receive medical treatment.

结构分析:句子主干结构是:... the health research community should ... recruit to its cause not only ... but ... ; because引导的原因状语从句;Stephen Cooper后面是一个who引导的非限制性定语从句;最后一个who引导定语从句修饰all;

译文:最后,因为最终决定因素是病人,医疗研究机构不仅应该积极争取像史蒂芬·库博这样的名人的支持--他对动物实验的价值勇敢地进行了肯定--而且应该争取所有接受治疗的病人的支持。

10. Shielded by third-party payers from the cost of our care, we demand everything that can possibly be done for us, even if it's useless.

结构分析:句子主干为:... we demand everything ... ; 第一个逗号前为过去分词短语shielded引导的状语成分,第二个逗号后面是even if引导的让步状语从句;everything后面是that引导的定语从句,that在从句中作主语;

译文:由于医疗费用由第三方支付,我们常常要求用尽所有的医疗手段,即使它们不会有任何作用。

英语长难句理解水平的提高不是一朝一夕的事情,各考研生一定要制定好复习计划并持之以恒地练习。最后祝所有同学在2015考研中都取得好成绩。

2018考研英语:长难句实例解析,伴考考研为大家持续更新考研资料,希望能帮助到大家,同学们可以关注伴考考研考研,这里有你需要的资料,这里还有考研英语一课程、考研英语二课程,大家可以点击这里【www.bankaoyan.com】风里、雨里,伴考考研陪伴着你!同学们抓紧时间吧,2018考研,伴考考研一路相随!

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